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Secrets of destructive cults and totalitarian sects Версия для печати Отправить на e-mail

Why thousand formed, clever and on a kind of safe people allow to involve themselves in мириады cults? Than to explain the total control over a life of the followers which the pseudo-religious organizations possess? How they achieve full humility and fidelity of the members? Why their adherents are at times ready to give a life in the name of a celebration of the "true" doctrine?
Totalitarian sects hire the members very effectively. But contrary to the widespread myths, mass hypnosis, " washing of brains " and application of physical strength here there is nothing. After loud scandals and the proceedings, many extreme measures peculiar to former techniques of "reference", already are not used almost. Much more often receptions of psychological coding are combined with effective marketing methods and sound advertising. The secret of success of the religious-mystical organizations is simple. They use three basic needs of each person: need for a generality, structure and the importance for associates. In it cults trade all.
In a modern society the virus of loneliness is very widespread. Teenagers, unhappy married couples, single mothers, older persons and workers of large corporations - today everyone complain of social isolation. Parents admit, that their children are too borrowed to see them or simply to call to them. Spouses living under one roof, each of which is borrowed by the affairs, can not communicate weeks. Clubs and discos for youth carry out the same function, as the food markets for the dissolved women who have lost last hope. The need for a generality is something greater, rather than usual desire of emotional attitudes with other people. It demands also strong communications of fidelity between individuals and the organizations. In the same way, as the person feels deficiency of friendly attitudes with other person, it feels an inclination to those social institutes which, in its opinion, are worthy its respect, love and fidelity. All we wish to belong to something greater and to the best, rather than ourselves.
It understand in many commercial companies which services of the personnel make efforts for культивирования " corporate spirit ". However results of researches show, that workers of the majority of firms still have rather negative impression of "mission" executed by them. The feeling of a generality usually is absent, therefore terms " fidelity of the company ", " loyalty to firm " and " corporate solidarity " have for the majority of people sickening sounding. The psychological climate in the companies remains changeable and emotionally unsatisfactory. Even if in firms also aspire to give to labour activity informal character - picnics on days off, celebratory parties at office - attitudes on work basically remain no more than superficial.
Today the feeling of a generality is a deficiency. And religious cults, first of all, offer lonely people unconditional acceptance. The beginner always is exposed to " shelling by love ". It is surrounded with people who offer it friendship and radiate approval. These unexpected geniality and attention so are highly appreciated, that members of cults often prefer to refuse contacts to the families and former friends, the money earned during all life endow, refuse drugs and even from sex.
The cult sells also something much greater, than feeling of a generality. It also offers structurization of the surrounding validity. Cults impose rigid restrictions on behaviour. They demand and create discipline, and the some people come so far, that forced labour or an imprisonment reach the necessary level of obedience through tortures, forced labour or an imprisonment.
The American psychiatrist Suhedeo writes: " the Modern society so is rich with alternatives, and people are compelled so much from what to choose, that effectively own decisions often are not capable to make. They want, that others solved for them, and they will follow them. Often people are ready to limit essentially freedom if only to bring any definiteness during the life ". The cult regulates all the parties of a life: when is when to sleep, when to pray, when to be engaged sex, when to sow, when to reap a crop. Last vital product which is sold with religious cults and totalitarian sects is "importance", intelligence of existence. Each cult has the own version of a reality - religious, political, cultural. The cult sect always applies for possession final true. Those who lives in "external world" and are unable to accept value of this true, appear or mistaking, or " servants of a satan ". Rigid division into "we" and "They" Takes place. And for destructive cults "we" are always " the present(true) people " in all senses, whereas "they" - not absolutely people (Bad people , "stray", " servants of a devil ", etc.)
In this connection the policy of " double standards " is inherent in all destructive cults. The love, geniality and sincerity are pertinent only in relation to "". As if to "another's" in the name of the just and fair purpose the lie is supposed, a deceit, and even physical violence over opponents. " In the name of business of the God it is necessary to hide the truth from the Divine enemies ". It is prominent feature of all destructive doctrines.
It is inherent and sect of Moon, and to mormons, and Witnesses Iegova, and to " the White brotherhood ", and Scientology, both to satanists, and hundreds less known cults.
The information for "external" and for "internal" using is precisely differentiated. For example, the maintenance of books and magazines for "devoted" (those who has already proved reliability and " the internal circle " enters in so-called) very much differs from the literature for beginners and representatives of the "external" world. Propaganda materials are usually published in last. And the literature for skilled members of sect is, first of all, directories and grants on methods of ocurrence in contact, the instruction on recruitment, phrase books in which keywords and phrases, etc. For example are collected, you can compare the maintenance of magazines " Watchtowers " (for all) and " Our regal service " (for "") which can be found in libraries. They are published by " Church of Witnesses Iegova".
Beginners, as a rule, pass all through the specialized centers of training where them learn methods of an establishment of contact and ways of recruitment of new members. The cult doctrine is driven to the neophyte during round-the-clock employment, it is preached continuously while it or it do not start to use its terminology, the dictionary and metaphorical language during own existence. "Meaning of the life" which is propagandized by dogma, can be completely absurd for the extraneous observer, But it has no value. The maintenance of the cult message is not essential almost. Its force consists in maintenance of integrity, synthesis, in the offer of alternative to an existing state of affairs. As soon as the given structure is accepted by the recruit of sect, it helps it to organize the majority of the chaotic information which bombards it from the outside. At once weakens constant stress from information overload and mess which take place to be in a modern life. The structure provides not the truth, as those, and the order, and, thus, sense of existence.
Giving members of sect sensation, that the reality possesses the certain sense and that they should inform this feeling to other people, the cult offers the vital purpose and sequence in our inconsistent world. Unfortunately, very often meaning of the life of adherents of the doctrine to be reduced to lasting many hours begging in streets and hunting behind new members of sect.
For recruitment of followers various methods of psychological influence are used. F.Zimbardo and M. Лайппе in the book " the Psychology of change of installations and social influence " result their list typical for the majority of destructive cults and totalitarian sects: 1. The technology " Step by step " - a small concession on which agrees hired, entails more and more essential concessions: " come to us - lead at us days off - remain for week - give us the money ". 2. The beginner constantly assure, that acceptance of ideology of sect in the best way will solve its any personal problems. 3. Force of group dynamics. Here matter both quantity, and personal charm, and manner of members of the community entering personal contact with devoted. Important value has sexuality - often attractive representatives of an opposite floor are specially put to beginners. 4. Absence of an opportunity to protest or argue: the beginner constantly stuff all with the new and new information, borrow with various actions, it never remains alone with own ideas. 5. A positive reinforcement: smiles, tasty food, attention and the care, communities given to the visitor, etc.
Last method requires specification. Any behaviour of the beginner, but only desirable is supported and approved not. If it says that wish from it to hear in reply to a question, smiles around blossom, its each word is perceived with pleasure. The negative or uncertain answer - and listeners хмурят eyebrowes, avoid its sight. Clouds are condensed. During any moment the person starts to understand, that if it and further wants, that it was surrounded with geniality and attention, it should start to speak and behave how its new friends want. And further one of laws of social psychology inures - external actions gradually become internal belief.
Danger consists that the described psychological manipulations occur imperceptibly and by members of sects are not distinguished. Beginners have an impression about spontaneity of the emotions, voluntariness of behaviour. All psychological changes are interpreted by them as attributes of " spiritual recover ".
" Bombardment by love " is usually spent in the best psychological conditions - far from family, from friends, from temptations. Especially strong effect is reached, when warm reception is combined with beauty of the surrounding nature. In this case to refuse repeated visit happens very difficultly.
Much more скрытно supervision over beginners, their check, testing, an estimation is conducted. It becomes usual each beginner after the first visit by object of deep studying. Recruiters, missionaries, preachers, heads of communities state opinions, sometimes inconsistent, in each concrete case. Special card files are conducted. Changes in behaviour are fixed. Prospects and expediency of the further contacts are defined. Business not in opening a gate of sect before all " divine children ", and in hiring crusaders.
It would seem, heads and leaders of cults should not refuse in reception to anybody. Actually recruiters, both working in streets, and going on houses, should direct to the centers only "positive" - the suitable, specially selected persons. From memoirs of a former member of "Church of the Unification ": " We hunted for " ideal новопосвященным ". It should correspond to the following description approximately: from eighteen till twenty four years, serious, the optimist, an idealist believing, with a sound health, looking true and meaning of the life, with the open character, a bachelor who is not having strong communications with family, constant habitation, a trade. But we approached and to other people, for example, to rich visitors in halls of magnificent hotels, to businessmen ".
The story was scientology: " We never addressed to patients, poor men, a scum of society. At them - sick spirit and they do not suit performance of mission. To us spoke, that we shall be engaged in them later. First of all, it was necessary to type vigorous people ".
The ordinary soldiers ready to self-sacrifice for the sake of the prophet are necessary to each cult, but victories are inconceivable without attraction in the numbers of the generals already holding the necessary posts in a citadel which needs to be subdued. If in streets missionaries come into contact generally with "positive" young men in their opinion a method "be knocked on each door " is aimed at the reference in the belief of representatives of safe and exclusive layers of a society: highly paid experts, businessmen, lawyers, journalists, politicians.
Usually representatives of social elite officially are not a part of "family". Is much more often they head the affiliated organizations and prefer to not advertise the communications, especially financial, with representatives of this or that cult. The organizations-screens have more often neutral names (" the Society of struggle for the world ", " the International public fund ", " Association for progress ", etc.) and carry out a number of functions. First, the covering organizations mask the religious or extremist maintenance of a cult prematurely to not frighten off potential members. Secondly, they serve as the tool of influence on public opinion and lobby interests of the present heads in power structures.
For today in the union of the independent countries operate more than 150 funds, associations, associations which actually are branches of the various organizations of religious-mystical sense. Many such branches at " Church of Scientology ", at " Church of the Unification ", " Church of the Christ ", " Children of the God ", " the Society of Transcendental meditation ". The last even has in a number of the countries own political party - "the Party of the natural law".
These and other cults actually are transnational business-corporations with rigidly controllable organizational structure. These are financial empires, each of which possesses hundreds enterprises, newspapers, magazines and which have temples or branches in the majority of large cities of the world.
The principles considered in the given review and methods are universal. They are used not only religious-mystical cults of totalitarian sense, but also all organizations of the closed type cultivating rigid division of "we" and "They".
Special services, terrorist groupings, the extremist organizations, mafia communities, financial-political clans... As well as destructive cults, these associations offer feeling of a generality, structure and the importance under extremely high price: very often it is necessary to refuse itself unconditionally.
Certainly, for the majority of people it not is unique alternative of aimlessness and senselessness of existence. As a rule, members of such groupings become the people of the certain psychological warehouse having conscious or subconscious aspiration to such "rescue". But about it is next time.

The sources used at a writing:
1. Jean Ritchi, THE SECRET WORLD OF CULTS. An Angus & Robertson Book, 1991.
2. Jean-Francois Boyer, L'EMPIRE MOON. La Decouverte, 1986.
3. Philip Zimbardo, Michael Leippe, THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATTITUDE CHANGE AND SOCIAL INFLUENCE. McGraw Hill,1991.
4. А. Дворкин. Десять вопросов навязчивому незнакомцу, или Пособие для тех, кто не хочет быть завербованным. Изд. Московской патриархии, 1998.
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